CROWNThe top portion of a diamond extendry from the gridle to the table .
PAVILIONThe bottom portion of a diamond extendry from the giedle to the culet .A pavilion depth that is to shallow or too deep will allow light to escape from the side of the stone or leak out of the bottom. A well cut diamond can let more light return through the crown.
CULETThe facet at the tip of gemstone .
GIRDLE The intersectionof the crown and pavilionwhich define the permeter of a diamond.
How to Choose a Diamond ?.
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ABOUT FLUORESCENCE : Refers to the emission of visible light from a diamond when subjected to ultraviolet radiation. On GIA diamonds reports , fluorescence is a description ,not a grade. The terms for describing the strength of fluorescence are :None , Faint, Medium , Strong ,and Very Strong . For Medium , Strong and Very Strong fluorescence ,the color of the fluorescence will also be noted. A description of None refers to a range of fluorescence from indiscernible to very Faint .
Is fluorescence common?
Yes. Of the diamonds submitted to GIA over the past decade, approximately 25% to 35% exhibit some degree of fluorescence. However, only 10% of those show strengths of fluorescence that may affect appearance (i.e., strengths noted on laboratory reports as medium, strong, or very strong).
In more than 95% of the diamonds that exhibit fluorescence, the visible color is blue. As blue is the complementary color to yellow, the most common tinted color in diamonds, blue fluorescence can make yellowish diamonds look white or colorless. In rare instances, the reaction to fluorescence is yellow, white or another color.
What impact does fluorescence have on the appearance of a diamond?
GIA studies show that for the overwhelming majority of diamonds, the strength of fluorescence has no widely noticeable effect on appearance. In the GIA Fluorescence Study, it was found that the average person could not make a distinction between a diamond withfluorescence and a diamond without.
In many instances, observers prefer the appearance of diamonds that have medium to strong fluorescence. In rare cases, some diamonds with extremely strong fluorescence may appear hazy or oily; fewer than 0.2% of the fluorescent diamonds submitted to GIA exhibit this effect
Does fluorescence compromise the structural integrity of the diamond?
No. A diamond that fluoresces has the same integrity as one with no reaction to UV. Submicroscopic substitutions and/or shifts in the diamond structure can cause fluorescence or can prevent it. Nothing in either instance inherently weakens or is bad for the diamond.
Should I buy a diamond that exhibits fluorescence?
The preference to buy a diamond that exhibits fluorescence is a personal one, as a diamond’s appearance must be taken as a whole. Other factors can influence color appearance more strongly than fluorescence, such as how the diamond has been cut, whether the diamond is viewed in natural or artificial light, and even what you’re wearing on any given day.
The 4 C’s of a diamond refers to the four main characteristics of Diamonds, which are: Cut, Color, Clarity, and Carat Weight. These four characteristics are what help classify, identify and determine the price of the Diamond. It is advisable that you make yourself familiar with the 4 characteristics of the diamond before you make your purchase.
ORGIN OF THE 4Cs
Every diamond is a miracle of time and place and chance. Like snowflakes, no two are exactly alike. Until the middle of the twentieth century, there was no agreed-upon standard by which diamonds could be judged. GIA created the first, and now globally accepted standard for describing diamonds: Color, Clarity, Cut, and Carat Weight. Today, the 4Cs of Diamond Quality is the universal method for assessing the quality of any diamond, anywhere in the world. The creation of the Diamond 4Cs meant two very important things: diamond quality could be communicated in a universal language, and diamond customers could now know exactly what they were about to purchase
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A Diamond's Cut Unleashes Its Light
Diamonds are renowned for their ability to transmit light and sparkle so intensely. We often think of a diamond's cut as shape (round, emerald, pear), but a diamond's cut grade is really about how well a diamond's facets interact with light.Precise artistry and workmanship are required to fashion a stone so its proportions, symmetry, and polish deliver the magnificent return of light only possible in a diamond.
A diamond's cut is crucial to the stone's final beauty and value. And of all the diamond 4Cs, it is the most complex and technically difficult to analyze.
To determine the cut grade of the standard round brilliant diamond - the shape that dominates the majority of diamond jewelry – GIA calculates the proportions of those facets that influence the diamond's face-up appearance. These proportions allow GIA to evaluate how successfully a diamond interacts with light to create desirable visual effects such as:
Brightness: Internal and external white light reflected from a diamond
Fire: The scattering of white light into all the colors of the rainbow
Scintillation: The amount of sparkle a diamond produces, and the pattern of light and dark areas caused by reflections within the diamond
GIA's diamond cut grade also takes into account the design and craftsmanship of the diamond, including its weight relative to its diameter, its girdle thickness (which affects its durability), the symmetry of its facet arrangement, and the quality of polish on those facets.
The GIA Diamond Cut Scalefor standard round brilliant diamonds in the D-to-Z diamond color range contains 5 grades ranging from Excellent to Poor
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How does pavilion depth affect a diamond's cut?
The distance from the bottom of the girdle to the culet is the pavilion depth. A pavilion depth that's too shallow or too deep will allow light to escape from the side of the stone or leak out of the bottom. A well-cut diamond will direct more light through the crown.
The Proportions, Symmetry and Finish of the diamond is referredto as Cut and plays the most important role in determining the diamond’s sparkle and brilliance. The cut has an enormous impact on the beauty and sparkle of the diamond. If the diamond is cut well, it will give the perfect balance of brilliance.
The diamond will look brighter and have more flashes of white light), dispersion (allows the stone to maximize light), and scintillation (sparkles). The most popular cut, which dominates the market, is the Round Brilliant Cut because it is the most superlative cut of any cut, and it’s symmetrical. The Brilliant cut diamond consists of 58 Facets, which stems from 33 Facets on the top called the Crown and 25 Facets on the base or point of the diamond called the Pavillion.
Fish Eyes: Brilliant cut diamonds that are cut with a shallow pavilion and a large table size are referred to Fish Eyes because it creates an “unattractive” fish eye effect; when viewed from the Crown and even worse this type of cut will produce a dull stone.
Nail Head: Brilliant cut diamonds with the pavilion cut too deep will produce lifeless, dark and dull looking diamond. For the diamond to sparkle at its brightest, the pavilion cannot be cut too shallow or too deep. A well-cut diamond allows light to penetrate easily through the table and travel through the stone where it is reflected from one side to the other before the light shines back to the viewer’s eyes.
In summary when considering purchasing a diamond the most important factor to consider is CUT as this determine a diamonds beauty and sparkle. Major labs use their own terminology when it comes to grading the cut of the Diamond.
For example, GIA uses the term “Excellent” for their top grade cut diamond followed by “Very Good”. HDR and GSL label their top grade cut Diamonds as “Very good”. Therefore, a top grade cut diamond would be label as “Excellent” by GIA and “Very Good” by HDR and GSL.
How Various Labs grade Diamonds:
GIA: Excellent - Very Good – Good – Fair – Poor
AGS: Ideal – Excellent – Very Good – Good – Fair – Poor
HDR: Very Good – Good –Medium – Fair – Poor
DCLA: Excellent – Very Good – Good – Medium – Poor
GSL: Very good - Good – Medium – Poor
Purchasing a diamond in the “Good” cut grade or above is highly recommended regardless, of which labs provide the certificate. Diamonds with cut grading “Medium”, “Fair” or “Poor” is not recommended for purchasing as diamond in this category are usually dull and lack brilliance and sparkle due to the poor alignment of their facets that causes the light to be misdirected.
At DG & Co., we only offer the 4 top colour grade diamond; D, E, F and G as we believe that buying a diamond is an investment of a life time! That is why we recomend you invest in the top colour range, not only for its beauty and sparkle but for the value it adds in time to come.
Diamond Color Actually Means Lack of Color
The diamond color evaluation of most gem-quality diamonds is based on the absence of color. A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond has no hue, like a drop of pure water, and consequently, a higher value. GIA's D-to-Z diamond color-grading system measures the degree of colorlessness by comparing a stone under controlled lighting and precise viewing conditions to masterstones of established color value. GIA's diamond D-to-Z color-grading scale is the industry's most widely accepted grading system. The scale begins with the letter D, representing colorless, and continues, with increasing presence of color, to the letter Z. Many of these color distinctions are so subtle that they are invisible to the untrained eye; however, these distinctions make a very big difference in diamond quality and price.
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Why does the GIA color grading system start at D?
Before GIA universalized the D-to-Z Color Grading Scale, a variety of other systems were used loosely, from A, B, and C (used without clear definition), to Arabic (0, 1, 2, 3) and Roman (I, II, III) numbers, to descriptive terms like "gem blue" or "blue white," which are notorious for misinterpretation. So the creators of the GIA Color Scale wanted to start fresh, without any association with earlier systems. Thus the GIA scale starts at the letter D. Very few people still cling to other grading systems, and no other system has the clarity and universal acceptance of the GIA scale.
Are Zs considered fancy-color?
No. Naturally colored diamonds outside the normal color range are called fancy-color diamonds. The FTC provides no guidelines for the use of the term “fancy-color” in the US, but there is general agreement in the international trade that fancy-color diamonds are either yellow or brown diamonds that have more color than a Z masterstone or they exhibit a color other than yellow or brown.
Diamond Clarity Refers to the Absence of Inclusions and Blemishes
Natural diamonds are the result of carbon exposed to tremendous heat and pressure deepin the earth. This process can result in a variety of internal characteristics called 'inclusions' and external characteristics called 'blemishes.'
Evaluating diamond clarity involves determining the number, size, relief, nature, and position of these characteristics, as well as how these affect the overall appearance of the stone. While no diamond is perfectly pure, the closer it comes, the higher its value.
The GIA Diamond Clarity Scale has 6 categories, some of which are divided, for a total of 11 specific grades
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Flawless (FL) No inclusions and no blemishes visible under 10x magnification
Internally Flawless (IF) No inclusions visible under 10x magnification
Very, Very Slightly Included (VVS1 and VVS2) Inclusions so slight they are difficult for a skilled grader to see under 10x magnification
Very Slightly Included (VS1 and VS2) Inclusions are observed with effort under 10x magnification, but can be characterized as minor
Slightly Included (SI1 and SI2) Inclusions are noticeable under 10x magnification
Included (I1, I2, and I3) Inclusions are obvious under 10x magnification which may affect transparency and brilliance
DG&CO. does not carry diamonds of this grade .
Many inclusions and blemishes are too tiny to be seen by anyone other than a trained diamond grader. To the naked eye, a VS1 and an SI2 diamond may look exactly the same, but these diamonds are quite different in terms of overall quality. This is why expert and accurate assessment of diamond clarity is extremely important.
We recommend you avoid buying I clarity diamond because the flaws are very visible and won’t hold much value. Make sure you buy a diamond that is GIA certified. In the certificate, you will see a diagram of your diamond with all the inclusions plotted in the diamond.
This is most reassuring because you will know exactly what diamond you’re buying! This prevents diamond switching and gives you a feeling of security and peace of mind.
How did the GIA Clarity Scale come to be?
Like the color scale, GIA's clarity grading system developed because jewelers were using terms that could be misinterpreted, "loupe clean" or "piqué™." Today, even if you buy a diamond somewhere else in the world, the jeweler will most likely use terms like VVS1 or SI2, even if his or her language is French or Japanese instead of English.
What causes inclusions?
Small crystals can become trapped in a diamond when it's forming. Sometimes as a crystal grows it can develop irregularities in its atomic structure.
Diamond carat weight is the measurement of how much a diamond weighs. A metric "carat" is defined as 200 milligrams.
Each carat can be subdivided into 100 'points.' This allows very precise measurements to the hundredth decimal place. A jeweler may describe the weight of a diamond below one carat by its 'points' alone. For instance, the jeweler may refer to a diamond that weighs 0.25 carats as a 'twenty-five pointer.' Diamond weights greater than one carat are expressed in carats and decimals. A 1.08 carat stone would be described as 'one point oh eight carats.'All else being equal, diamond price increases with diamond carat weight, because larger diamonds are more rare and more desirable. But two diamonds of equal carat weight can have very different values (and prices) depending on three other factors of the diamond 4Cs: Clarity, Color, and Cut.
It's important to remember that a diamond's value is determined using all of the 4Cs, not just carat weight.
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The carat weight that most women want in an engagement ring is a One Carat Diamond. From our experience, we find most young couple usually make a purchase of around the .50 CT and .75 CT due to their limited budget. However, an older couple will go for the higher carat weight between .75 CT to 1CT.Our recommendation when it comes to the carat weight consideration is to work within your budget however always try and get a little bit bigger diamond if you can. You will not regret it when you see your sweethearts face light up, it’ll be worth every penny.
How did the carat system start?
The modern carat system started with the carob seed. Early gem traders used the small, uniform seeds as counterweights in their balance scales. The carat is the same gram weight in every corner of the world.
What are "magic sizes"?
Some weights are considered "magic sizes" – half carat, three-quarter carat, and carat. Visually, there's little difference between a 0.99 carat diamond and one that weighs a full carat. But the price differences between the two can be significant.
When it comes to diamonds, most consumers tend to use the words “cut” and “shape” interchangeably. But for diamond professionals, there is a big difference. Diamond Shaperefers to theoutline of the stone (pear, oval, round, etc.).Diamond cutrefers to a stone’s facet arrangement. So a shape can be faceted in a variety of ways, or cutting styles. The most common facet arrangement, known as the brilliant cut, is applied to many shapes. It consists of 58 facets (if a culet facet is included) or 57 facets (if the culet is pointed). There will be one octagonal table, or top flat surface of the diamond and 16 kite-shaped facets and 40 triangular shaped facets and an optional small octagonal facet at the culet.
ROUND SHAPED DIAMOND :
The round shape is the most popular, often used as a solitaire in engagement rings, earrings, or pendants. It’s estimated that 75% of all diamonds sold are round-shaped and according to research by The Knot, 53% of engagement ring center stones are round. The cutting style known as the round brilliant has been around since the 1700’s, but has been modified over the years. The angles we see in today’s modern round brilliant – angles that help to enhance the diamond’s fire and brilliance – were first suggested by Henry Morse of Boston in the 1860’s and laterslightly enhanced by Marcel Tolkowsky in 1919. In 2005, a scientific way to assess and help cutters plan and predict the cut quality of round brilliant cut diamonds was introduced by GIA.
OVAL SHAPED DIAMOND :
Oval is a shape that pairs well with other shapes of gems in multi-stone rings. Ovals have the added benefit of appearing larger because of their elongated shape. When selecting an oval diamond, look for even, well-rounded shoulders.
Your personal preference will likely decide which width of oval is more appealing, however the optimal length-to-width ratio is 1.33-1.66:1.
Ovals cut in the brilliant style display a brightness similar to round brilliant cut diamonds. Oval brilliant cut diamonds often display a “bow-tie.” Seen with the naked eye, this is a dark area which looks like two triangular pieces joined in the center of the stone. When the diamond is viewed face-up, you want the “bow-tie” to be minimized as much as possible.
MARQUISE SHAPED DIAMOND
Symmetry is an important factor for all fancy cut diamonds. Even the smallest difference can create an appearance that is not balanced. Check that each half is a mirror image of the other, and for marquises that the two points align. Like oval, this shape pairs well with other gem shapes in multi-stone rings, and if a prong mounting is chosen, V-shaped prongs will help protect the points.
If a marquise shape is too long, it could impact its durability. Look for a length-to-width ratio of 1.75-2.25:1.
Like the oval, the marquise diamond that is cut in the brilliant style should be examined for a “bow-tie” effect, and the points of the marquise should be examined for inclusions.
PEAR SHAPED DIAMOND :
Like all fancy cut diamonds, the pear diamond comes in a variety of proportions, however the preferred length-to-width ratio should range between 1.50-1.75:1.
Examine the point for inclusions and color concentration. The wings on each side of the point should be symmetrical. The rounded end should appear like a semi-circle. As with the oval and marquise, the pear brilliant may show a “bow tie.”
If a prong setting is chosen, it should include a V-shaped prong at the point because that will help protect it from damage.
HEART SHAPED DIAMOND :
An obvious symbol of love and romance, the heart-shaped diamond should have two identical halves, and the cleft should be distinct. The wings and lobes need to be even with the lobes curving down the cleft.
The ideal length-to-width ratio is approximately 1.00:1. Check the point for any visible inclusions. As with the oval, marquise and pear, the heart shape may show a “bow tie.”
It may be difficult to perceive the heart in a diamond of less than .50 carats. For smaller size stones, a bezel or three-prong setting better preserves the shape.
TRIANGULAR SHAPED DIAMOND :
You’ll often encounter triangular-shaped diamonds cut in the brilliant style, referred to by jewelers as trillion or trilliant. While this shape is sometimes set as a solitaire, it’s more commonly used as side stones in a multi-stone setting.
Attention should be paid to clarity, since even small inclusions may be more visible in this shallow shape. The preferred length-to-width ration is 1:00:1.
A protective prong setting is recommended to keep the sharp points from chipping.
SQUARE SHAPED DIAMOND :
Square diamonds are spotted almost daily on celebrity fingers this year. The halo setting used for brilliant cut square gems was one of the most popular engagement ring trends of 2013.
The list of cuts available for square shapes is a long one. Some of the trade names you may come across while shopping include Asscher, barion, cushion, princess, radiant and Quadrillion (as pictured below). All sides should be parallel.
RECTANGULAR SHAPED DIAMOND :
Similar to square shapes, there are numerous cuts for a rectangular look including baguette, barion, emerald cut, and radiant.
Avoid uneven, narrow or no corners and sides that are not parallel.
The emerald cut or a square step cut will require higher clarity since inclusions might be easier to see.
One general shopping tip for fancy cut diamonds is to view them in daylight. Pricing of the various shapes can be complicated, so it’s best to compare stones of the same shape, cutting style and similar carat weight. Ask to see the grading reports for the diamonds you are considering. They will help you compare each diamond’s quality factors.